The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
Publications Copernicus
Articles | Volume XLVIII-1/W2-2023
13 Dec 2023
 | 13 Dec 2023


B. Wang, Y. Zhuang, and N. El-Bendary

Keywords: 4D imaging radar, Radar Inertial Odometry, Consistent Mapping, GNSS, iEKF

Abstract. 4D millimeter-wave radar can work in harsh weather conditions such as fog and snow, and measure the position and radial Doppler velocity of objects in three-dimensional space. Some existing methods perform positioning by fusing 3D velocity or point cloud matching information estimated by 4D radar with IMU information. However, the sparsity of radar point clouds and the interference of large amount of noise lead to low accuracy of odometry, and most of the existing work cannot achieve the global consistent mapping with radar point clouds. In this paper, a 4D radar/IMU/GNSS localization and mapping method, G-iRIOM, is proposed. We tightly coupled IMU measurement, Doppler observation information and point cloud matching information from 4D radar by iterative extended Kalman filtering (iEKF) method, and introduced GNSS RTK and loop closure information as global observation to correct the positioning drift of the odometry. The experimental results show that the tightly coupled Doppler velocity information can effectively improve the control of the pose on the local point cloud position, thus enhancing the mapping accuracy. Meanwhile, the introduction of GNSS and loop closure information can significantly improve the positioning accuracy of 4D radar odometry as a kind of global observation, and achieve global consistent mapping of large-scale outdoor scenes based on 4D radar point clouds.