A GEOSPATIAL KNOWLEDGE GRAPH PROTOTYPE FOR NATIONAL TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING
Keywords: National Topographic Mapping, Geospatial Knowledge Graph, GeoSPARQL, Linked Open Data, Map Portrayal
Abstract. Knowledge graphs are a form of database representation and handling that show the potential to better meet the challenges of data interoperability, semi-automated information reasoning, and information retrieval. Geospatial knowledge graphs (GKG) have at their core specialized forms of applied ontology that provide coherent spatial context to a domain of information including non-spatial attributes. This paper discusses research toward the development of a prototype GKG based on national topographic databases of geospatial feature instances, attributes, properties, metadata, and annotations. The challenges are to capture and represent geographic semantics inherent in the source data, to align such graph models with standards where possible, to test logical computations, and to visualize the data using a cartographic user interface. Data integration from outside sources was tested through SPARQL and GeoSPARQL queries. Called the MapKB, the approaches applied in this prototype use a number of software components to build a system architecture aligned with those objectives and are composed entirely of free and open-source software. The system and ontology design were validated through reasoning and competency questions. Technical aspects of the prototype software succeeded, but customization was found to be needed for user-based design.