SPATIO-TEMPORAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MANILA BAY USING OPTICAL WATER TYPE AND WATER QUALITY MAPPING USING SENTINEL-3 OLCI IMAGES
Keywords: C2RCC, Chlorophyll-a, Coastal waters, TSM, IOPs
Abstract. Optical water type (OWT) classification provides a way to delineate surface waters according to spectral properties caused by optically active constituents. This classification is useful in mapping out spatial variability and describing changes in water quality over time as it uses inherent optical properties to discriminate areas of a water body. We used Sentinel-3 OLCI images from July 2017 to December 2020 to classify OWT in Manila Bay and to generate chlorophyll-a and total suspended matter (TSM) concentration layers using C2RCC algorithm. Nine coastal OWT classes for Manila Bay having consistent presence and spatial distribution seasonally were identified. The most dominant class, OWT 6, (3.50 µg/cm3 chlorophyll-a; 4.93 g/m3 TSM) was concentrated around the central area of the bay, covering as much as 79% of it. Chlorophyll-a and TSM concentrations were higher in the nearshore areas and were decreasing offshore. The class with the second highest concentrations, OWT 7, (9.11 µg/cm3 chlorophyll-a; 26.80 g/m3 TSM) were found near river outlets, where high nutrient and sediment loadings coming from the watershed enter the bay. Lowest concentrations (0.26–0.70 µg/cm3 chlorophyll-a; 0.64–1.10 g/m3 TSM) were found in OWT 1, OWT 2, and OWT 3, all located farthest from the shore, such as the mouth of the bay leading to the open sea. Validation using in situ observations showed that C2RCC produced relatively good estimates for chlorophyll-a concentrations of up to 12 µg/cm3 (RMSE=1.71 µg/cm3). No conclusion was drawn for TSM due to insufficient data.