FEASIBILITY STUDY OF LANDSAT-8 IMAGERY FOR RETRIEVING SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE (CASE STUDY PERSIAN GULF)
Keywords: SST, Landsat-8, Split-Window, MODIS, Thermal bands, Non-Linear Model
Abstract. Sea surface temperature (SST) is one of the critical parameters in marine meteorology and oceanography. The SST datasets are incorporated as conditions for ocean and atmosphere models. The SST needs to be investigated for various scientific phenomenon such as salinity, potential fishing zone, sea level rise, upwelling, eddies, cyclone predictions. On the other hands, high spatial resolution SST maps can illustrate eddies and sea surface currents. Also, near real time producing of SST map is suitable for weather forecasting and fishery applications. Therefore satellite remote sensing with wide coverage of data acquisition capability can use as real time tools for producing SST dataset. Satellite sensor such as AVHRR, MODIS and SeaWIFS are capable of extracting brightness values at different thermal spectral bands. These brightness temperatures are the sole input for the SST retrieval algorithms. Recently, Landsat-8 successfully launched and accessible with two instruments on-board: (1) the Operational Land Imager (OLI) with nine spectral bands in the visual, near infrared, and the shortwave infrared spectral regions; and (2) the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) with two spectral bands in the long wavelength infrared. The two TIRS bands were selected to enable the atmospheric correction of the thermal data using a split window algorithm (SWA). The TIRS instrument is one of the major payloads aboard this satellite which can observe the sea surface by using the split-window thermal infrared channels (CH10: 10.6 μm to 11.2 μm; CH11: 11.5 μm to 12.5 μm) at a resolution of 30 m. The TIRS sensors have three main advantages comparing with other previous sensors. First, the TIRS has two thermal bands in the atmospheric window that provide a new SST retrieval opportunity using the widely used split-window (SW) algorithm rather than the single channel method. Second, the spectral filters of TIRS two bands present narrower bandwidth than that of the thermal band on board on previous Landsat sensors. Third, TIRS is one of the best space born and high spatial resolution with 30 m. in this regards, Landsat-8 can use the Split-Window (SW) algorithm for retrieving SST dataset. Although several SWs have been developed to use with other sensors, some adaptations are required in order to implement them for the TIRS spectral bands. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to develop a SW, adapted for use with Landsat-8 TIRS data, along with its accuracy assessment. In this research, that has been done for modelling SST using thermal Landsat 8-imagery of the Persian Gulf. Therefore, by incorporating contemporary in situ data and SST map estimated from other sensors like MODIS, we examine our proposed method with coefficient of determination (R2) and root mean square error (RMSE) on check point to model SST retrieval for Landsat-8 imagery. Extracted results for implementing different SW's clearly shows superiority of utilized method by R2 = 0.95 and RMSE = 0.24.