OPTIMIZATION OF EMERGENCY EVACUATION IN FIRE BUILDING BY INTEGRATED BIM AND GIS
Keywords: Indoor Navigation, Fire Evacuation, 3D Modelling, BIM, GIS
Abstract. Building Information Model (BIM) is a database, which makes a detailed 3D geometrical model with rich semantic information of building, go beyond the standard Computer-Aided Design approach. BIM could be as an ideal source to store, formation model and analyses spatial information of internal environments. GIS is an effective tool for analysing the constant and dynamic variables in small areas such as indoor environments. Therefore, integration of the BIM and GIS is useful for integrating the internal environment and networks for designing optimal routes in emergency evacuation problems. Increasing complexity of high-rise buildings and underground structures lead to much more complication in urban disaster management. One of the main challenges in disaster management and emergency evacuation is to guide people in optimal routes to reach safe areas. In this paper, in order to create optimal routes in internal environments and create an internal geometric network model based on the internal nodes and edges, BIM of a 3D commercial building located in the 8th district of Tehran, was made and transferred to the ARCGIS that enables us to use routing algorithms to find the optimize routes between both internal positions. Flammability, occupancy load, width of exit access and distance of fire point criteria were considered to find the safest routes in emergency evacuation times. Network Analysis and Ant Colony's algorithm were applied for finding the safest routes. The results indicated that the Network Analysis was better in terms of processing time and finding short and safe paths related to the Ant Colony's algorithm.