INTERACTION BETWEEN DIRECT GEOREFERENCING, CONTROL POINT CONFIGURATION AND CAMERA SELF-CALIBRATION FOR RTK-BASED UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY
Keywords: RTK, direct geo-referencing, UAV photogrammetry, camera calibration, land monitoring
Abstract. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are enjoying increasing popularity in the photogrammetric community. The Chinese supplier DJI is the market leader with about 70% of the global consumer UAV market. The Phantom model has been available for more than 10 years and its current version "RTK" is equipped with a 2-frequency GNSS receiver, as a basis for direct georeferencing of image flights, using RTK or PPK technologies.
In the context of the paper, different case studies are investigated, which allow statements on the geometric accuracy of UAV image flights as well as on the self-calibration of the camera systems.
In the first example, four DJI Phantom 4 RTK systems are examined, which were flown in a cross flight pattern configuration on the area of the UAV test field "Zeche Zollern" in Dortmund, Germany. The second example analyses the results of an open moorland area where the establishment of GCPs is extremely difficult and expensive, hence direct georeferencing offers a promising way to evaluate deformations, soil movements or mass calculations. In this example a DJI Matrice 210 v2 RTK drone has been used and the results of two different software packages (Agisoft Metashape and RealityCapture) are analysed. The third example presents a reference building that has been established by the Lower Saxony administration for geoinformation in order to evaluate UAV photogrammetry for cadastral purposes. Here again a DJI Phantom 4 RTK has been tested in a variety of flight configurations and a large number of high precision ground control and check points.
The case studies show that the RTK option leads to sufficient results if at least 1 GCP is introduced. Flights without any GCPs lead to a significant height error in the order of up to 30 GSD.