UNSUPERVISED MULTI-CONSTRAINT DEEP NEURAL NETWORK FOR DENSE IMAGE MATCHING
Keywords: Multi-Constraint, Unsupervised Learning, Dense Image Matching, Deep Neural Network, Photo Consistency, Matching Accuracy
Abstract. Dense image matching is essential to photogrammetry applications, including Digital Surface Model (DSM) generation, three dimensional (3D) reconstruction, and object detection and recognition. The development of an efficient and robust method for dense image matching has been one of the technical challenges due to high variations in illumination and ground features of aerial images of large areas. Nowadays, due to the development of deep learning technology, deep neural network-based algorithms outperform traditional methods on a variety of tasks such as object detection, semantic segmentation and stereo matching. The proposed network includes cost-volume computation, cost-volume aggregation, and disparity prediction. It starts with a pre-trained VGG-16 network as a backend and using the U-net architecture with nine layers for feature map extraction and a correlation layer for cost volume calculation, after that a guided filter based cost aggregation is adopted for cost volume filtering and finally the soft Argmax function is utilized for disparity prediction. The experimental conducted on a UAV dataset demonstrated that the proposed method achieved the RMSE (root mean square error) of the reprojection error better than 1 pixel in image coordinate and in-ground positioning accuracy within 2.5 ground sample distance. The comparison experiments on KITTI 2015 dataset shows the proposed unsupervised method even comparably with other supervised methods.