The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
Publications Copernicus
Articles | Volume XLVIII-1/W2-2023
13 Dec 2023
 | 13 Dec 2023


W. Tampubolon, W. Reinhardt, and F.-J. Behr

Keywords: InSAR, standard, disaster preparedness, rapid mapping, TanDEM-X , Copernicus, Sentinel 1A/1B

Abstract. In critical situations such as disaster and humanitarian relief, the reliable geospatial data will present an appropriate decision on a timely manner. As fundamental datasets, large-scale topographic maps are are mandatory in order to perform geospatial analysis for many societal challenges. Indeed, Large Scale Topographic Mapping in Indonesia shall be accelerated in an innovative and productive way to consider the production efficiency, especially for the geospatial data acquisition as its primary source. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data acquisition presents some advantages, especially in conjunction with the security clearance and global weather as some main constraints for the geospatial data acquisition. In terms of disaster preparedness and emergency response, radar interferometry techniques can play an important role by generating a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) as an input to Decision Support Systems (DSS). In addition, the techniques of differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (D-InSAR) can provide the earth surface deformation from time series Radar Datasets. 
A set of standards related to the InSAR data acquisition are essential, especially with regards to the improved sensors, and processing methods implemented by the worldwide space agencies nowadays. Hence, the precise definition of a standard is fundamental in order to prepare the InSAR data as one potential source of geospatial data and information, especially for LSTM data production. Generated time series of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) can identify the potential cause of 2018’s Sunda Strait tsunami (Tampubolon, 2019). It was related with the increasing eruption activity of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatoa). From DEM analysis, the Volcanic mudflow material avalanche has been detected before the tsunami hit the coastal surrounding area.   
In this paper, more advanced techniques was investigated by the combination between Time Series DEM Analysis and Ground Displacement detection. The focus on the integration between reliable TanDEM-X and up-to-date Sentinel 1A/B was proposed on another volcano island of Gamalama in Ternate. As TanDEM-X uses X-band as its medium wave, it can produce more reliable DEM as a reference data. On the other hand, Sentinel 1 uses C-band that can contribute to detect the ground deformation over the aforementioned volcano island. TanDEM-X uses a more robust and consistent approach to scan the earth surface by single data acquisition scheme, which is generally more accurate and reliable for the DEM generation. However, many factors influence the selection of a platform that can be best suited for radar interferometry. Initially, the German TanDEM-X Coregistered Singlelook Slant-range Complex (CoSSC) using bi-static InSAR approach has been implemented in order to generate DEMs comply with the LSTM specification in Indonesia. The basic principle is performing a simultaneous measurement of the same scene and identical doppler spectrum by using 2 sensors, thereby avoiding temporal decorrelation (DLR, 2012). Subsequently, the differential InSAR techniques by using Sentinel 1A/B has been performed in order to detect the ground deformation. Finally, tt can be shown that the reliable TanDEM-X data has increased the ground deformation resolution and accuracy in order to provide potential solution for disaster preparedness.