The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
Publications Copernicus
Articles | Volume XLIII-B3-2021
28 Jun 2021
 | 28 Jun 2021


M. Buyukdemircioglu, R. Can, and S. Kocaman

Keywords: Deep Learning, CNN, Roof type classification, 3D GIS, 3D City models

Abstract. Automatic detection, segmentation and reconstruction of buildings in urban areas from Earth Observation (EO) data are still challenging for many researchers. Roof is one of the most important element in a building model. The three-dimensional geographical information system (3D GIS) applications generally require the roof type and roof geometry for performing various analyses on the models, such as energy efficiency. The conventional segmentation and classification methods are often based on features like corners, edges and line segments. In parallel to the developments in computer hardware and artificial intelligence (AI) methods including deep learning (DL), image features can be extracted automatically. As a DL technique, convolutional neural networks (CNNs) can also be used for image classification tasks, but require large amount of high quality training data for obtaining accurate results. The main aim of this study was to generate a roof type dataset from very high-resolution (10 cm) orthophotos of Cesme, Turkey, and to classify the roof types using a shallow CNN architecture. The training dataset consists 10,000 roof images and their labels. Six roof type classes such as flat, hip, half-hip, gable, pyramid and complex roofs were used for the classification in the study area. The prediction performance of the shallow CNN model used here was compared with the results obtained from the fine-tuning of three well-known pre-trained networks, i.e. VGG-16, EfficientNetB4, ResNet-50. The results show that although our CNN has slightly lower performance expressed with the overall accuracy, it is still acceptable for many applications using sparse data.