The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
Publications Copernicus

Volume XLIII-B2-2022, 2022 – Keyword index

Volume XLIII-B2-2022, 2022 – Keyword index


20th century architectural heritage


3D 3D As-Built CAD Model 3D Building Reconstruction 3D City Models 3D Hologram 3D Laser Scan 3D Map 3D Mesh 3D Model 3D Modelling 3D Models 3D Object Extraction 3D Occupancy Grids 3D Point Cloud 3D Puzzle 3D Reconstruction 3D Skeleton 3D change detection 3D documentation 3D mapping 3D modelling 3D models 3D objects detection 3D photogrammetric model 3D point cloud 3D point cloud data 3D point cloud processing 3D projective reconstruction 3D reconstruction 3D scanning 3D segments 3D sketching


ALS point clouds AP Clustering ARCore Accelerometer Accuracy Accuracy verification Active Learning Aerial Images Aerial LiDAR Aerial Surveys Aerial triangulation Agisoft Metashape Airborne Laser Scanning Alignment Analog-digital conversion Animal Science Antler Architectural Heritage Artificial Intelligence Artificial Intelligence (AI) Autoencoders Automatic 3D segmentation Automatic Extraction Automatic Target Generation Process Automation Autonomous Vehicles Azure Kinect Azure Kinect DK accuracy accuracy analysis accuracy investigations action camera adaptive grid aerial triangulation antarctica archaeology as-built BIM as-built modelling augmented reality automated aerial multi-epoch georeferencing autoregressive models auxiliary clustering loss


BIM Bark Texture Bayesian Modelling Beam deflection Benchmark Bilateral matching Bootstrap Branch and Bound Bridge Monitoring System (BMS) Bridges Building Change Detection Building Materials Building and camera geometry Building change detection Building detection Building foot-pint extraction Building reconstruction Bundle Adjustment benchmark big data bird eye view bridge building facades


CHM CNN Camera Calibration Change Detection Change detection Characteristic lines extraction Circular Target Observation Classification Classifier Cliff-Burial Close Range Photogrammetry Close range terrestrial photogrammetry Close-Range Photogrammetry Close-range Photogrammetry Coastal Remote Sensing Collinearity Equation Collinearity equations Concrete Assessment Confidence Evaluation Construction site monitoring Convergent images Convolution Neural Networks (CNN) Convolutional Neural Network Convolutional Neural Networks Crane Cameras Cross sections Cross-Validation Cross-section Crowdsource Cultural Heritage Cultural heritage Cultural relic disease calibration change detection civil engineering class imbalances classification cloth simulation cloud detection cloud-free coastal engineering colour absorption colour checker colour correction concrete structures conservation convolutional neural network convolutional neural networks crack detection cracks of teeth crop classification cross polarization cryosphere cultural heritage


DBH DCN DEM DSM DSM comparison DTM Damaged Heritage Danger tree monitoring Dark Web Data Fusion Data fusion Data processing Dataset Deep Learning Deep Neural Network Deep Query Network Deep learning Deep residual networks (ResNet) Dense Image Matching Dense Reconstruction Dense matching Deterioration Differential GNSS processing Digital Elevation Model Digital Reconstruction Digital Surface Model Digital Surface Model (DSM) Digital Survey Digital Terrain Model Digital Twin Digital twins Digitizing Dimensionality Reduction Direct Georeferencing Discontinuity Determination Disparity Map Display holography Doric order Double-line Parallel Photography Drone data fusion deep learning deflection of verticals density-independent depth map depth maps depth prediction depth-resolved turbidity parameters detection different-time images digital heritage digital libraries digital photogrammetry digitization direct georeferencing documentation driver’s bearing drones


Fast-NCCSFOC Façade Detection Feature Detection Feature extraction Feature fusion Feature matching Featureless terrain Field estimation Fisher’s Linear Discriminant Function Flame Segmentation Forest Forestry Forward Kalman Filter Forward Section Frame Cameras facade feature image fluorescence imagery forest inventory


GCP GIS GNSS-denied environments GNSS/IMU Integration GSD Geometric Calibration Geometric Key-Frame Selection Geometric deep learning Global Image features Global Optimization Google Earth GrabCut Graph convolutional networks Ground controlled Point Ground sampling distance Gyroscope geoid geometric monitoring geoscientific monitoring ground detection guided calibration


HBIM HLS (helmet-based laser scanning) Habitat mapping Handwriting Enhancement Heritage Buildings Heuristic Generation Hierarchical Image retrieval Histogram of Gradients Historic Building Historic Building Surveying and Mapping Historic Photographs Historical aerial photographs HoloLens Hybrid Block-Adjustment Hyperspectral image classification (HSI) hand-held 3D scanning health status monitoring heritage buildings heritage conservation high-resolution 3D reconstruction historic floor historical aerial images historical images hydrodynamic tunnel


ICESat-2 IMU IOOPL Illicit Traffic Image Sequence Analysis Image matching Imbalanced Classes Indoor 3D modelling Indoor 3D models Indoor Classification Indoor localization Industrial Automation Industrial Burner Inertial Measurement Unit Inhomogeneous Density Point Cloud Inspections Integration Integrity Intensity Interior orientation Inverse Perspective Mapping Inversion Model iPhone image acquisition image binarization image classification image matching image segmentation image-based 3D measurements image-based modelling indoor integral images


L0 optimization LSTM Label Transfer Land movement Landsat 8 Landscape evaluation Landslide Landslides Lane Detection Large scale topographic mapping Laser Reflection Intensity Laser Scanning Laser Triangulation Laser scanner Lava Dome Emplacement Learning-based Features LiDAR Lidar Line Cameras Line Feature Linear Regression LoD LoD-2 Building Reconstruction Local Euclidean distance Local Image Features Local density Locally Linear Embedding Low-cost laser scanning laserscanning localisation long-term monitoring


MAIA MMS MR Device MRF Machine Learning Machine learning Mapping Accuracy Marsa Bagoush Mask RCNN Mass Movements Matching MicMac Microhabitat Detection Mining Mixed Reality Mobile Laser Scanning Mobile Mapping Mobile Mapping System Mobile laser scanning Mobile mapping Monitoring of Environmental Risks Monocular depth estimation Monte Carlo Motion Vector Mount Agung Multi-Modal Image Matching Multi-Object Tracking Multi-camera Multi-date satellite images Multi-orientation tensor Multi-orientation tensor index feature Multi-stereo satellite images Multi-view stereo matching Multimodal images Multimode Satellite Image Multispectral Multiview Images Mural Salt Damage mapping marine ecosystems micro-computed tomography monitoring monocular morphology multi-sensor multi-temporal multimedia imaging multispectral imagery


NDT NMCA Nap-of-the-Object Photogrammetry Natural Disasters Natural scenes Neighborhood size Night Road Ortho-imaging No Need for Control Points Noise model Non-destructive investigation Normal vectors neural network neural networks


OBIA Object Detection Object geometry Object space geometric constraint Oblique Oblique Aerial Imagery Occlusion Occlusion detection Octree Odontometry Onboard High sensitivity Camera Open Source training data Open Street Map Open-source Open-source software Openings Orientation Ortho-Image Ortho-mosaic Orthomosaic Orthophoto Orthophoto Generation Orthophotos Overlap object documentation oblique images on-the-fly-reconstruction orientation parameters ortho full-waveform ortho imagery orthophoto


PMVS PPK Pedestrian positioning Performance Permanent Laser Scanning Philological reconstruction Photogrammetry Photogrammetry Software Photogrammetry with UAV-RPAS-PPK Photon Classification Plastic Covered Greenhouses Point Cloud Point Cloud Evaluation Point Cloud Model Point Cloud Processing Point Cloud Registration Point Cloud data Point Clouds Point Transformer Point cloud Point cloud Classification Point cloud data Point cloud processing Point cloud upsampling Point clouds Point-Cloud PointNet Portable Mobile Mapping Systems Post-Eruption Post-conflict Recovery Poultry Tracking Precision Precision Agriculture Probabilistic 3D Reconstruction Progress Detection Projective Transformation parametrized objects parking space patch-based feature-less aerial image matching pavings photogrammetry point cloud point clouds pose estimation positional accuracy pre-1755 Lisbon


RANSAC RGB RGB-D SLAM RIEGL VZ-6000 RPAS RTK GNSS Radargrammetry RandLa-Net Random Forests Range Cameras Rapid mapping Rare Classes Ray Tracing Real-World Data Analysis Reef/island Zones Reference frame Reflectance Registration Regression Reinforcement Learning Reinforcement learning Remote Sensing Remote inspections Rheology Risk Areas Road Road alignment Road features Robust Normal Estimation Rock Mass Evaluation Rock Slope Failure Roll-sensitive real-time reconstruction reflectance restoration road geometry rock glacier


SAR and optical image SAR image SCENE software SFOC SGM SIFT Feature SLAM SLIC0 Satellite image Satellite imagery Scan Matching Scan Quality Scan-to-BIM Seafloor Recognition Segmentation Self-Supervised Learning Self-supervision Semantic Segmentation Semantic segmentation Sensor Co-registration Sentinel-2 Sequence Serious Games SfM SfM photogrammetry Shadow Shadow extraction Shape decomposition Shape from X ShellNet Silhouette-based 3D Reconstruction Single-Image Depth Smartphone Smoothing Algorithm Social Media Intelligence Soil erosion South Italy Spectral Indexes Spectral Reflectance Spectral Transformation Steel Reinforcement Stereo View Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) Structure from Motion Structure-from-Motion Structure-from-motion Subpixel-Based Edge Detection Superpixel Supervised Method Supervoxel Survey System Calibration safety scalability scan-to-BIM segmentation self-driven semantic segmentation sentinel-2 silk heritage simulation single tree detection smartphone solar incidence spatially resolved decay parameter fields stability state of the art stereo storm drain structural health monitoring structure from motion survey


TLS Target-less Photogrammetry Taylor series Template Matching Terrestrial Laser Scanner Terrestrial Laser scanner Terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) Terrestrial laser scanning Texture mapping Tham Khai cave Three Access Gimbal Tie points Tightly Coupled Timber-framed Dwellings Time Series Topographic Mapping Topographic Surveying Topographic plan Total Station Tracktor Traditional construction system Training Datasets Traits Transformer Transparent objects Triple epipolar images Tunnel Tunnel Reconstruction Tunnels Two-Stage Approach target design technical documentation terrestrial laser scanning texture propertis texturing thermal infrared tie points time series topographic LiDAR transformer trees


UAV UAV Aerial Photogrammetry UAV Photogrammetry UAV Remote Sensing UAV image matching UAV images UAV photogrammetry UAV-LiDAR UAV-photogrammetry UAVs UWB Uncertainty Uncertainty Quantification Uncertainty modeling Underneath Canopy Underwater photogrammetry Unity Game Engine Universal Soil Loss Equation Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) Urban Urban Areas Urban Point Clouds Urban Regeneration Urban scene reconstruction ubiquitous point cloud uncertainty uncertainty analysis underwater photogrammetry urban areas urban underground space user experience


VDI 2634 VGG19 VQM Variational Inference Vectorization Vibration Detection Video Laser Scan (VLS) View planning Virtual Bounding Box Virtual Reality Virtual Reconstruction Virtual Reference Station Vision Visual Odometry Visual SLAM Visual-Inertial Systems Visualization Volume Change Vuforia very high-resolution virtual reality voxel space representation
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